Differences of functional fitness in adults after 9 months of combined exercise training program
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of physical intervention program related quality of life on a set of physical tests that determine the physical condition of adults. 128 adults, aged between 50-70 years old, participated in a combined exercise training program, 3 sessions per week (two Physical Fitness Exercises and one swimming), during a period of 9 months. Their physical condition was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the study by the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Results show significant improvements in the strength parameters of the legs and arms (p<0.01) and in the range of motion in the shoulders and trunk (p<0.05), no significant differences were found in tests of agility and resistance. These results suggest that participation in regular physical exercise programs, both aerobic and strength training causes a number of favourable responses that contribute to healthy aging and may play a role in the prevention or reduction of functional decline in older adults.
Baker, D.W., Sudano, J., Durazo-Arvizu, R., Feinglass, J., Witt, W.P., Thompson, J. (2006). Health insurance coverage and the risk of decline in overall health and death among the near elderly, 1992-2002. Medical Care .44, 277-282. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mlr.0000199696.41480.45
Callisaya Michele, L., Blizzard Leigh, Schmidt Michael, D. (2008). Sex modifies the relationship between age and gait: A population-based study of older adults. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Science. 63, 2, 165-170. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/63.2.165
Carrillo, K.G., Pena, G.C., Mudgal, J., Romero, X., Arenas, L.D., Salmeron, J. (2009). Role of depressive symptoms and comorbid chronic disease on health-related quality of life among community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 66, 127–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.07.007
Cicioglu, I. (2010). Assessment of Physical Fitness Levels of Elderly Turkish Males over 60 Years. Collegium Antropologicum. 34, 1323-1327.
Cress, M.E., Buchner, D.M., Questad, K.A. (1997). Continuous-scale physical functional performance in healthy older adults: A validation study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 77, 12, 1243-1250. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(96)90187-2
Forrest Kimberly, Y. Z., Zmuda Joseph, M., Cauley Jane, A. (2006). Correlates of decline in lower extremity performance in older women: A 10-year follow-up study. Journals of Gerontology Series A-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 61, 11, 1194-1200. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/61.11.1194
Fortin, M., Bravo, G., Hudon, C., Lapotine, L., Almirall, J. (2006). Relationship between multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of patients in primary care. Quality of Life Research. 15, 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-005-8661-z
Fox, K.R., Stathi, A., Mckenna, J., Davis, M.G. (2007). Physical activity and mental wellbeing in older people participating in the Better Aging Project. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 100, 591–602. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0392-0
Franzen, K., Saveman, B.I., Blomqvist, K. (2007). Predictors for health related quality of life in persons 65 years or older with chronic heart failure. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 6. 112–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2006.06.001
Garachatea, N., Val, R., Calvo, I., De Paz, J.A. (2004). Valoración de la condición física funcional. mediante Senior Fitness Test. de un grupo de personas mayores que realizan un programa de actividad física. Apunts. 76. 22-26.
Henwood, T. (2011). Exercise in later life: the older adults perspective about resistance training. Ageing & Society. 31, 1330-1349. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X10001406
Instituto Nacional de Estadística. (2009). Análisis y estudios demográficos (on line) Checked on 29/11/2011. http://www.ine.es.
Landi, F., Abbatecola, M., Provinciali, M., Corsonello, A., Bustacchini, S., Manigrasso, L., Cherubini, A., Bernabei, R., Lattanzio, F. (2010) Moving against frailty: does physical activity matter?. Biogerontology. 11. 537-545. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-010-9296-1
Li, C., Ford, E., Zhao, G., Mokdad, A.H. (2009). Associations of health risk factors and chronic illness with life dissatisfaction among U.S. adults: the behavioral factor surveillance system. Prev. Med. 49. 253–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.05.012
Lobo, A., Carvalho, J., Santos, P. (2010). Comparison of funtional Fitness in elderies with reference values by Rickli and Jones and after one year of health intervention programs. Journal of Sports Med Phys Fitness. 50. 1-2.
Lord, S., Sherrington, C., Menz, H.B. (2001). Falls in Older People: Risk Factor and Strategies of Prevention. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
Nelson, M., Rejeski. J., Blair, S., Duncan, P., Judge, J., King, A., Macera, C., Castaneda-Sceppa, C. (2007). Physical Activity and Public Health in Older Adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 39, 1435-1445. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3180616aa2
Netz, Y., Wu, M., Becker, B.J., Tennenbaum, G. (2005). Physical activity and psychological well being in advanced age: a meta-analysis of intervention studies. Psychol Aging. 20, 272–284. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-79220.127.116.112
Norris, S.L., High, K., Gill, T.M., Hennessy, S., Kutner, J.S., Reuben, D.B., Unu¨Tzer, J., Landefeld, C.S. (2008). Health care for older Americans with multiple chronic conditions: a research agenda. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 56. 149–159. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01530.x
Ozturk, A., Tarsuslu, T., Tutun, E., Sertel, M, Yumin, M. (2011). The relationship between physical. functional quality of life among elderly people with a chronic disease. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 53, 278–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2010.12.011
Pascual, C., Regidor, E., Gutiérrez-Fisac, J.L., Martínez, D., Calle, M.E., Domínguez, V., (2005). Material well being of the province of residence and leisure-time physical inactivity. Gaceta. Sanitaria. 19, 424–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0213-9111(05)71392-3
Phillip, C., Blissmer, J., Greene W., Leesd, F. D., Riebeb, D.A., Stamm, K. E. (2011). Maintaining exercise and healthful eating in older adults: The senior project II: Study design and methodology. Contemporary Clinical. 32, 129-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2010.10.002
Rikli, R., & Jones, C. (1999). Functional fitness normative scores for communnity-residing adults. ages 60-94. Journal of Aging and physical Activity. 7. 160-179. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.7.2.162
Rikli, R. & Jones, C. (2001) Senior fitness test manual. Estados Unidos de América. Human Kinetics.
Rovio, S., Kareholt, L., Helkala, E.L., Vitanen, M., Winblad, B., Tomilehto, J., Soininen, H., Nissinen, A., Kivipleto, M. (2005). Leisure-time physical activity at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurol. 4, 705–711. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70198-8
Shimada, H., Tiedemann, A., Stephen, R., Suzukawa, M., Makizako, H., Kobayashi. K., Suzuki. T. (2011). Physical factors underlying the association between lower walking performance and falls in older people: A structural equation model. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 53. 131–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2010.11.003
Skelton, D.A., Y Beyer, N. (2003). Exercise and injury prevention in older people. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 13. 77-85. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2003.00300.x
Taylor, A.H., Cable, N.T., Faulkner, G., Hillsdon, M., Narici, M., Van Der Bij, A.K. (2004). Physical activity and older adults: a review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions. Journal of Sports Sciences. 22, 703-725. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410410001712421
Toraman, A., Yildirim, N. (2010). The falling risk and physical fitness in older people. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 51, 222–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2009.10.012
Town Hall of Granada, Ayuntamiento de Granada, Spain. (2011). Patronato Municipal de Deportes (en línea). Checked at: 28/11/2011. http:// pmdgranada.es
Yoeme, H.A., Fleury, J., Keller, C. (2008). Risk factors for mobility limitation in community-dwelling older adults: a social ecological perspective. Geriatr. Nurs. 29. 133–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2007.07.002
Zuccaro, S.M., Steindler, R., Scena, S., Costarella, M. (2011). Changes of psychical and physical conditions in the elderly after a four-year follow-up. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 54. 72–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2011.04.008