Cross-sectional analysis of rowing power and technique of German Junior Women in the Eight
Keywords:Performance analysis, Race rowing, Cross-Sectional analysis, Junior women
Since ten years, the German Rowing Federation (DRV) annually conducted 2000-m-race-tests with the best-performing athletes at the beginning of the immediate-pre-competition-preparation (IPCP) for the World-Rowing-Junior-Championships (WRJC). According to previous findings, differences between year-groups, correlations between anthropometric-data, rowing-power and technique development were tested to identify trends and to define a performance-strategy. Twenty test-runs of the junior-women’s-Eight (N=156) were studied using a mobile-measuring-system that records rowing-force and rowing-angle. Body height, body mass, average handle-power with its components handle-force, velocity and handle-displacement per stroke and further rowing-technical characteristics of the rowing-stroke-length were considered and WRJC-race-times used as external-criteria. Single-factor-variance-analysis, linear-correlation, regression-analysis and cluster-analysis were calculated. Significant differences were found between year-groups in body height, body mass and in characteristic values for rowing-power and technique and significant correlations between body height and body mass with rowing-power. Further, six performance-groups were identified by rowing-technique-data. Significant reduction was found in crew’s WRJC-race-time, reflected in handle-power and its determinants. Cross-sectional-comparison showed significant increase in average handle-power and handle-force per rowing-stroke at higher stroke frequency. Based on the cross-sectional-data, selection and year-group influences, together with exercise-induced-effects, should be considered as causes. Results show a functioning preparation-system within the DRV for better prepared-junior-athletes to commence the IPCP.
FundingGerman Federal Institute of Sport Science (BISp)
Baudouin, A. Hawkins, D. (2002). A biomechanical review of factors affecting rowing performance. Br J Sports Med 2002; 36(6): 396-402. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.36.6.396
Boehmert, W. & Mattes, K. (2003). Biomechanische Objektivierung der Ruderbewegung im Rennboot. In Fritsch, W. (Hrsg.), Rudern - erfahren, erkunden, erforschen. S. 163-172. Gießen: Wirth-Verlag (Sport Media).
Bourgois, J., Albrecht L. Claessens, A. L., Janssens, M., Van Renterghem, B., Loos, R., Martine, T., Philippaerts, R., Lefevre, J., Vrijens, J. (2001). Anthropometric characteristics of elite female junior rowers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19: 3, 195-202. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404101750095358
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cornett, J., Bush, P. & Cummings, N. (2008). An 8-factor model for evaluating crew race performance. International Journal of Sports Science and Engineering. Vol. 02 (2008) No. 03, pp. 169-184.
Dal Monte, A. and Komor, A. (1980). Rowing and sculling mechanics. In C.L.Vaughan (ed.) Biomechanics of Sport, (pp. 53-19). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Draper, C. (2006). Optimising rowing performance in elite women single sculling. Dissertation. The University of Sydney.
Gerber, H. (1991). Wasserkraft und Stroemung am Ruderblatt beim Rennrudern. Dissertation, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich.
Kleshnev, V. & Nolte, V. (2011). Learning from racing. In Nolte, V. (ed.) Rowing Faster. Human Kinetics. USA.
Kleshnev, V. (2007). In Secher, N.H. & Volianitis, S. (eds). Rowing. Handbook of sports medicine and science. Australia, Blackwell Publishing 2007.
Kleshnev, V. (2011). Biomechanics of rowing. In Nolte, V. (ed.) Rowing Faster. Human Kinetics. USA.
Lorms A. (1998). Kalibrierbarer aktiver Kraftsensor fuer den Einsatz unter rauhen Feldbedingungen. Diplomarbeit, Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin.
Mattes, K. (2011). In Altenburg, D. Mattes, K. Steinacker, J.M. (eds.), Coaching High Performance Rowing, Technique, Performance and Planning. (S. 55-110). Wiebelsheim: Limpert Verlag.
McBride, M. (2005). Rowing Biomechanics. In Nolte, V. (ed.) Rowing Faster. Human Kinetics. USA
Nolte, V. (1979). Die Handschrift des Ruderers. Messtechnische Briefe 15, Heft 3.
Schwanitz, P. (2005). Vollzogener Entwicklungstrend und moegliche Prognose 2005-2008. Rudersport, (55), 16, S. 526-527.
Smith, R. & Loschner, C. (2000). Net power production and performance at different stroke rates and abilities during pair-or rowing. In Y. Hong (Ed.) Proceedings of XVIII International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. Hong Kong. China: University of Hong Kong.
Smith, R., Galloway, M. & Patton, R. (1994). Analysing On-Water Rowing Performance. Sports Coach, 1994, July-September, 37.
Smith, R.M., & Spinks, W.L. (1995). Discriminant analysis of biomechanical differences between novice, good and elite rowers. J Sports Sci 1995; 13(5): 377-85. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419508732253
Zaciorskij, V.M. & Jakunin, N.A. (1981). Zur Biomechanik des Ruderns. Beiheft Leistungssport, S.83-98.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2015 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.