Profiling half-back play in rugby union and the impact of substitutions
Keywords:Player profiling, Substitutions, Rugby Union
An exploratory method of quantifying the impact of individual players in rugby union was developed and applied to both half-back positions in 2015 Rugby World Cup matches with a view to firstly test the validity of these systems by profiling players, and secondly, if successful, to assess the impact of substitutions. A match impact scoring system was devised using questionnaire responses of an expert group of professional rugby analysts and experienced international coaches. The scoring system weighted each game action in a positive or negative manner according to the impact on team performance. It was found that the proposed method produced valid and reliable data concerning player performance. It was applied to half-backs substituted with more than 20 mins playing time left, the two 20 min period, before and after substitution, were compared. A “non-substituted” control group were also analysed, in both the first and final 20 minutes of competition. It was found that for the scrum-half position, the starting players produced a higher median ‘efficacy’ score than replacement players 27.46, (std. dev. +10.06) and 20.42, (+12.45). The best performing scrum-half group were the 60-80 minute non-replaced players 29 (+9.0). For the out-half position, it was found that the highest median ‘efficacy’ was achieved by the replacement player group 18.80, (+ 11.00), with the non-replaced 60-80 minute group performing worst 14.40, (+ 7.09). Future research should develop the methods applied in this study to define player profiles for each position on the rugby field. It is suggested that these profiles should use score difference between the teams to take into account the strength of the teams involved. The concept of a weighted individual player efficacy system has been demonstrated in the sport of rugby union, but could be applied in any team sport where greater individual player performance data is required.
Bremner, S., Robinson, G. and Williams, M.D. (2013). A retrospective evaluation of team performance indicators in rugby union. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 13:2, 461-473. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2013.11868662
Carroll, R. (2013). Team performance indicators in Gaelic football and opposition effects. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 13:3, 703-715. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2013.11868682
Heasman, J., Dawson, B., Berry, J. and Stewart, G. (2008). Development and validation of a player impact ranking system in Australian football. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 8:3, 156-171. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2008.11868457
Hughes, M. and Bartlett, R.(2002). The use of performance indicators in performance analysis. Journal of Sports , 20, 739 – 754. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404102320675602
Hughes, M., Cooper, S-M. and Nevill, A. (2002) Analysis procedures for non-parametric data from performance analysis. EIJPAS International Journal of Performance Analysis Sport (Electronic), 2, 6 – 20. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2002.11868257
Hughes, M. T., Hughes, M. D., Williams, J., James, N., Vučković, G. and Locke, D. (2012a). Performance indicators in rugby union. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 7:7, 383-401. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.72.05
Hughes, M., Caudrelier, T., James,N., Redwood-Brown, A., Donnelly, I., Kirkbride, A. and Duschesne, C. (2012b). Moneyball and soccer - an analysis of the key performance indicators of elite male soccer players by position. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 7, 402 – 412. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.72.06
International Rugby Board, (2011). Rugby World Cup 2011 – Statistical review and match analysis. Dublin: International Rugby Board.
James, N., Mellalieu, S. and Jones, N. (2005). The development of position-specific performance indicators in professional rugby union. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23:1, 63-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410410001730106
Jones, N., Mellalieu, S. and James, N. (2004). Team performance indicators as a function of winning and losing in rugby union. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 4:1, 61-71. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2004.11868292
Lim, E., Lay, B., Dawson, B., Wallman, K. and Aanderson, S. (2009). Development of a player impact ranking matrix in Super 14 rugby union. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 9:3, 354-367. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2009.11868492
O'Donoghue, P. (2010). Research methods for sports performance analysis. Oxford: Routledge.
Pearce, M. and Hughes, M. (2001). Substitutions in Euro 2000. In M.D. Hughes (ed.) pass.com, Cardiff: UWIC, pp. 303 – 317.
Prim, S., van Rooyen, M. and Lambert, M. (2006). A comparison of performance indicators between the four South African teams and the winners of the 2005 Super 12 Rugby competition. What separates top from bottom? International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 6:2, 126-133. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2006.11868378
Quarrie, K. L., Hopkins, W. G., Anthony, M. J., and Gill, N. D. (2013). Positional demands of international rugby union: Evaluation of player actions and movements. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 16:4, 353-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.08.005
Vaz, L., Rooyen, M. and Sampaio, J. (2010). Rugby game-related statistics that discriminate between winning and losing teams in I.R.B. and Super Twelve close games. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 9:1, 51-55.
Villarejo, D., Palao, J., Ortega, E., Gomez-Ruano, M. and Kraak, W. (2015). Match-related statistics discriminating between playing positions during the men's 2011 Rugby World Cup. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 15:1, 97-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2015.11868779
World Rugby, (2011). Replacements increasing in influence, analysis shows http://www.worldrugby.org/news/91646 [accessed 6th May 2016].
World Rugby, (2015). Coaching- The home of rugby coaching on the web. Scrum-Half/Half-back. http://coaching.worldrugby.org/?module=2§ion=8&subsection=55&page=2088 [accessed on 5th November 2015].
World Rugby, (2015). Coaching- The home of rugby coaching on the web. Stand-off / Fly-half / Out-half. http://coaching.worldrugby.org/?module=2§ion=8&subsection=56 [accessed on 5th November 2015].
World Rugby, (2016). Laws of the game. Rugby Union http://laws.worldrugby.org/?law=3&language=EN [accessed 8th May 2016].
How to Cite
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.