Effects of resistance training, tai chi chuan and mat pilates on multiple health variables in postmenopausal women
Keywords:Women, Health, Postmenopausal, Functional autonomy, Physical exercise
Objective: To compare the effect of two concurrent training methods on the muscle strength, functional autonomy, cardiorespiratory capacity and quality of life (QoL) of postmenopausal women. Material and methods: Thirty-eight volunteers were allocated to two groups: Resistance Training (RT)+Tai Chi Chuan (TC) (n=16), and RT+Mat Pilates (MP) (n=12). For the RT+TC group, RT was linearly periodized twice a week, alternating weekly with TC. In the RT+MP group, RT was non-linearly periodized and alternated with MP in five sessions a week over a period of 16 weeks. Results: Intragroup improvement in QoL was observed for the physical health of RT+MP. The Cooper test showed improvement in the prediction test for both groups. Functional autonomy improved in the following: rising from a ventral decubitus position, rising from a sitting position, walking 10 meters, putting on and taking off a t-shirt (PTTs) and the GDLAM index (GI) in the RT+MP group. For RT+TC, PTTs and GI improved. With respect to strength, there was intragroup improvement in the RT+MP group for all upper limb exercises, knee flexion and 45º leg press. On the other hand, the RT+TC group showed improvements in high shoulder adduction, elbow extension, low shoulder adduction, pec deck pectorals and 45º leg press. Intergroup analysis showed better results in the 10mW test for RT+MP. Conclusion: Both methods showed significant improvements in functional autonomy and muscle strength, as well as maintenance of QoL and cardiorespiratory capacity. Intergroup analysis indicated better results with the RT+MP program.
FundingNo Agency Declared
American College of Sports Medicine (2014) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Philadelphia, 9th Ed.
Baechle, T. & Groves, B. (1992). Weight Training: Steps to Success. Champaign: Human Kinetics.
Borba-Pinheiro, C. J., Carvalho, M., Silva, N., Bezerra, J., Drigo, A. & Dantas, E. (2010). Effects of resistance training on low bone density-related variables in menopausal women taking alendronate [In Portuguese]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 16(2),121-125. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922010000200009
Borba-Pinheiro, C. J., Figueiredo, N. M. A., Walsh-Monteiro, A., Júnior, O. R., Pernambuco, C. S., Oliveira, M. A. & Dantas, E. H. (2013) Resistance training program on functional independence of a elderly man with frontotemporal dementia: a case report. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 8(Proc2), S47-S53. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.8.Proc2.06
Brazil. (2012). Ministry of Health. National Politic of Basic Action. Brasília DF: Ministry of Health. Available at: http://126.96.36.199/dab/docs/publicacoes/geral/pnab.pdf
Brazil (2016). National Commission on Ethics in Research: updated resolution Nº510 / 16 research with humans. Brasília: National Health Council. Available in: http://conselho.saude.gov.br/resolucoes/2016/Reso510.pdf
Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (2013). Research Department. Coordination of Population and Social Indicators. Projection of Brazilian Population for Sex and Age. Major Regions and Federation Units. Available in: ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Projecao_da_Populacao/Projecao_da_Populacao_2013/nota_metodologica_2013.pdf
Bueno, D., Marucci, M., Codogno, J. & Roediger, M. (2016). The costs of physical inactivity in the world: a general review [In Portuguese]. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 21(4), 1001-1010. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232015214.09082015
Cepero-González, M., Romero-Sánchez, D., Rojas-Ruiz, F. J. & De la Cruz, J. C. (2012) Differences of functional fitness in adults after 9 months of combined exercise training program. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 7(1), 321- 330. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.71.10
Ciconelli, R., Ferraz, M., Santos, W., Meinão, I. & Quaresma, M. (1999). Brazilian-Portuguese version of the SF-36. A reliable and valid quality of life outcome measure [In Portuguese]. Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia, 39(3), 143-150.
Concha-Cisternas, Y., Guzman-Muñoz, E. & Marzuca-Nassr, G. (2017). Effects of a combined exercise program on functional capacity in healthy older women in Primary Health Care Centre Primaria de Salud [In Spanish]. Fisioterapia, 39(5), 195-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ft.2017.03.002
Costa, M., Dantas, E., Marques, M. & Novaes, J. (2004). Subjective exertion perception. Perceived exertion classification: face scale utilization proposal [In Portuguese]. Fitness & Performance Journal, 3(6), 305-313.
Dantas, E., Figueira, H., Emygdio, R. & Vale, R. (2014). Functional Autonomy GDLAM Protocol Classification Pattern in Elderly Women. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 4(7), 262-266. https://doi.org/10.15373/2249555X/July2014/159
Farias, M., Borba-Pinheiro, C. J., Oliveira, M. & Vale, R. (2014). Effects of a concurrent training program on muscle strength, flexibility and functional autonomy of older women [In Spanish]. Revista de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, 15(2), 13-24.
Filho, M. L. M., Rodrigues, B. M., Aidar, F. J., Reis, V. M., Polito, M. D., Venturini, G. P. & Matos, D. G. (2011). Influence of aerobic exercise and resistance training on hemodynamic and lipid profile in hypertensive elderly [In Portuguese]. Revista Brasileira de Ciência e Movimento, 19(4), 15-22.
Gambassi, B., Vehida, M., Sousa, T., Schwingel, P., Pulcherio, J., Almeida, F., Ruberti, O., Novais, T., Oliveira, P. & Rodrigues, B. (2017). Effects of a new approach components combined functional autonomy of the healthy elderly women [In Portuguese]. Journal of Exercise Physiology online, 20 (3), 45-52.
Guedes, J., Bortoluzzi, M., Matte, L., Andrade, C., Zulpo, N., Sebben, V. & Filho, H. (2016). Effects of combined training on the strength, endurance and aerobic power in the elderly women [In Portuguese]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 22(6), 480-484. https://doi.org/10.1590/1517-869220162206124834
Lin, S., Sung, H., Li, T., Hsieh, T., Lan, H., Perng S. & Smith, G. (2015). The effects of Tai-Chi in conjunction with thera-band resistance exercise on functional fitness and muscle strength among community-based older people. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(9-10), 1357-1366. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12751
Lopes, L., Lopes Júnior, L., Bomfim, E., Silva, S., Galvani, R. & Chagas, E. (2014). Effects of physical activity on the quality of life in women with overweight and post menopausal obesity [In Portuguese]. Ciência, Cuidado e Saúde, 13(3), 439-446. https://doi.org/10.4025/cienccuidsaude.v13i3.18688
Matveev. L. (1991). Basis of sports training. 2nd ed. Lisbon: Horizon.
Melo, R., Varejão, R., Barros, R., Brito, E. S., Pernambuco, C. M. & Dantas, E. (2004). Comparison of the degree of flexibility and autonomy in elderly women practicing of tai chi e sedentary [In Portuguese]. Fitness & Performance Journal, 3(4), 194-200. https://doi.org/10.3900/fpj.3.4.194.e
Mendes, P., Santos, L., Mesquita, L. & Carvalho, F. (2015). Analysis of the functionality and flexibility of women performing pilates exercises on the ground [In Portuguese]. Revista Arquivos de Ciências da Saúde, 22(3), 53-57. https://doi.org/10.17696/2318-36188.8.131.525.238
Pereira, M., Oliveira, R., Silva, M., Souza, L. & Vianna, L. (2008). Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on knee extensor muscle strength and balance in elderly women [In Portuguese]. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, 12(2),121-126. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-35552008000200008
Pestana, M., Pestana, V., Pestana, A. & Schinoni, M. (2013). Comparison between the exercises-based on pilates soil versus exercise resistance on the march and balance the elderly [In Portuguese]. Revista de Ciências Médicas e Biológicas, 12, 441-448. https://doi.org/10.9771/cmbio.v12i4.9188
Pilates, J. (2010). The complete work of Joseph Pilates. Your health and The return to life by Contrology. São Paulo.
Reche-Orenes, D. & Carrasco, M. (2016). Contributions on the effectiveness of the Pilates method in strength, balance and risk of falls in elderly people. Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte, 9 (2), 85-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ramd.2015.09.001
Rezende, A., Miranda, E., Ramalho, H., Silva, J., Herrera, S., Reis, G. & Dantas, E. (2015). Effects of sensory motor training of lower limb in sedentary elderly as part of functional autonomy. Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte, 8(2); 61-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ramd.2014.05.001
Rikli, R. & Jones, C. (2008). Physical Fitness Test for the Elderly. Barueri, São Paulo: Manole.
Romo-Pérez, V., Schwingel, A. & Chodzko-Zajko W. (2011) International resistance training recommendations for older adults: implications for the promotion of healthy aging in Spain. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 6(4), 639-648. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2011.64.07
Saad, B. H., Prefaut, C., Tabka, Z., Mtir, A. H., Chemit, M., Hassaoune, R., Abid, B. T., Zara, K., Mercier, G., Zbidi, A. & Hayot, M. (2009). 6-Minute walk distance in healthy North Africans older than 40 years: Influence of parity. Respiratory Medicine, 103(1),74-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2008.07.023
Silva, W. & Borba-Pinheiro, C. J. (2015). Effect of a linear resistance training program on the functional autonomy, the flexibility, the strength and the quality of life of older women [In Portuguese]. Revista Brasileira de Qualidade de Vida, 7(2), 75-88.
Suksom, D., Siripatt, A., Lapo, P. & Patumraj, S. (2011). Effects of Two Modes of Exercise on Physical Fitness and Endothelial Function in the Elderly: Exercise with a Flexible Stick Versus Tai Chi. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 94(1), 123-132.
Tairova, O. & Lorenzi, D. (2011). The influence of exercise in the quality of life of postmenopausal women: a case-control study [In Portuguese]. Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 14(1), 135-145. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1809-98232011000100014
Takeshima, N., Rogers, M., Islam, M., Yamauchi, T., Watanabe, E. & Okada, A. (2004). Effect of concurrent aerobic and resistance circuit exercise training on fitness in older adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 93(1-2), 173-182. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1193-3
Tozim, B., Furlanetto, M., França, D., Morcelli, M. & Navega, M. (2014). Effect of the Pilates method in flexibility, quality of life and level of pain in the elderly [In Portuguese]. Revista Conscientiae Saúde, 13(4), 563-570.
Wang, C., Collet, J. & Lau, J. (2004). The Effect of Tai Chi on Health Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Conditions. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164(5), 493. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.164.5.493
Wang, C., Schmid, C., Hibberd, P., Kalish, R., Roubenoff, R., Rones, R. & McLindon, T. (2008). Tai Chi Is Effective in Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 16, 32-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1063-4584(08)60092-8
World Health Organization (1995). Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Geneva; Technical Report Series 854. Disponível em: http://www.who.int/childgrowth/publications/physical_status/en/
World Health Organization (2012). Recomendaciones mundiales sobre actividad física para la salud. Available in: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44441/1/9789243599977_spa.pdf
World Health Organization (2015). World Report on Aging and Health. WHO / FWC / ALC / 15.01. Available in: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/186468/6/WHO_FWC_ALC_15.01_por.pdf
World Medical Association (2008). Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. 59th WMA General Assembly, Seoul.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.