A specific training protocol for the elderly


  • Salvatore Pignato University Kore of Enna, Italy
  • Antonella Quinto University Kore of Enna, Italy
  • Sebastiano Gagliardi University Kore of Enna, Italy
  • Vittoria Patania University Kore of Enna, Italy




Elderly people, Tinetti Test, Falls, Motility


It is widely known that in elderly people a regular physical activity of mild intensity shows significant benefits in term of health, while a sedentary lifestyle contributes, together with other factors of risks, to develop some chronic degenerative diseases, particularly cardiovascular metabolic and osteo-articular diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study is useful to assess influence of controlled training, based on conditional and coordinative motor abilities, in elderly people. The group of this study is made up of twenty members (experimental and control groups) aged from 65 to 75. The experimental groups have trained for nine months (2 times for week with 45-60' for each training session) and no training for control group. Before and after nine months of training, each participant has been assessed with the tests presented in the article. There were no significant differences for the control group in the pre and post comparison except for the Chair-Stand test characterized by a worsening of the results. On the contrary, there were statistically significant differences between the pre and post-test evaluations of the experimental group, in which improvements have been shown in the test. This investigation showed the training benefit on long period in elderly without any compromising.


Download data is not yet available.


Aihie-Sayer A, Dennison EM, Syddall HE, Jameson K, Martin HJ, Cooper C. The developmental origins of sarcopenia: using peripheral quantitative computed tomography to assess muscle size in older people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63(8):835–840. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/63.8.835

Altavilla, G., D'Elia, F., Raiola, G. (2018) A brief review of the effects of physical activity in subjects with cardiovascular disease: An interpretative key Sport Mont, 16 (3), pp. 103-106.

Bianchetti, A., Rozzini, R., Carabellese, C., Zanetti, O., & Trabucchi, M. (1990). Nutritional intake, socioeconomic conditions, and health status in a large elderly population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 38(5), 521-526. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1990.tb02401.x

Bicego, D., Brown, K., Ruddick, M., Storey, D., Wong, C., & Harris, S. R. (2009). Effects of exercise on quality of life in women living with breast cancer: a systematic review. The breast journal, 15(1), 45‐51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4741.2008.00670.x

Brown, D. W., Brown, D. R., Heath, G. W., Balluz, L., Giles, W. H., Ford, E. S., et al. (2004). Associations between physical activity dose and health‐related quality of life. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), 890‐ 896. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000126778.77049.76

Casolo, F., Calcerano, L. (2007). Educazione motoria e sportiva (II ed.), Mondadori: La Scuola, 33- 35.

Ćešković, T., & Kuzmanić, B. (2014, January). Assessment of balance in elderly people. In Scientific Conference" FIS Communications 2014". At Niš, Serbia.

Chou, C. H., Hwang, C. L., & Wu, Y. T. (2012). Effect of exercise on physical function, daily living activities, and quality of life in the frail older adults: a meta-analysis. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 93(2), 237-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2011.08.042

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Elsevier, New York, 2nd.

Gaetano, A. (2016) Relationship between physical inactivity and effects on individual health status, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16, pp. 1069-1074.

Gastaldi, A., & Contarello, A. (2006). Una questione di età: rappresentazioni sociali dell'invecchiamento in giovani e anziani. Ricerche di Psicologia, 4 (1), 65 - 66.

Jones, C. J., Rikli, R. E., & Beam, W. C. (1999). A 30-s chair-stand test as a measure of lower body strength in community-residing older adults. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 70(2), 113-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1999.10608028

Landers KA, Hunter GR, Wetzstein CJ, Bamman MM, Weinsier RL. (2001) The interrelationship among muscle mass strength and the ability to perform physical tasks of daily living in younger and older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 56(10), B443–B448. [PubMed]. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/56.10.b443

Marsili, M., & Sorvillo, M. P. (2002). Previsioni della popolazione residente per sesso, età e regione dal 1.1. 2001 al 1.1. 2051. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, ISTAT, Roma.

Macchi, C. & Molino Lova, R. (2007). Attività Motoria Fitness e Salute nell’adulto e nell’anziano (II ed.). Nicodemus Maggiulli Publisher, Florence, 373-379.

Miketa, T., Ivančić, N., & Kuzmanić, B. (2017). Relationship of breathing exercises with improvement of postural stability in healthy adults. Acta Kinesiologica, 11(2), 59-62.

Newell, D., Shead, V., & Sloane, L. (2012). Changes in gait and balance parameters in elderly subjects attending an 8-week supervised Pilates programme. Journal of bodywork and movement therapies, 16(4), 549-554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2012.02.002

Pichierri, M., & Guido, G. (2017). Anziani e social media: opportunità o minaccia?. Salute e società, 3, 10. https://doi.org/10.3280/ses2017-003012

Podsiadlo, D., & Richardson, S. (1991). The timed “Up & Go”: a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. Journal of the American geriatrics Society, 39(2), 142-148. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1991.tb01616.x

Persch, L. N., Ugrinowitsch, C., Pereira, G., & Rodacki, A. L. (2009). Strength training improves fall-related gait kinematics in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Biomechanics, 24(10), 819-825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.07.012

Raiola, G. (2017) Motor learning and teaching method, Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17, art. no. 236, pp. 2239-2243.

Raiola, G. (2013) Body knowledge and motor skills, Knowledge Cultures, 1 (6), pp. 64-72.

Rosenthal, R. (1994). Parametric measures of effect size. The handbook of research synthesis, 621, 231-244.

Rozzini, L., Costardi, D., Chilovi, B. V., Franzoni, S., Trabucchi, M., & Padovani, A. (2007). Efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment treated with cholinesterase inhibitors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: A journal of the psychiatry of late life and allied sciences, 22(4), 356-360. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1681

Rodacki, A. L., Souza, R. M., Ugrinowitsch, C., Cristopoliski, F., & Fowler, N. E. (2009). Transient effects of stretching exercises on gait parameters of elderly women. Manual therapy, 14(2), 167-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2008.01.006

Sgrò, F., Licari, D., Coppola, R., & Lipoma, M. (2015). Assessment of balance abilities in elderly people by means of a clinical test and a low-cost force plate. Kinesiology: International journal of fundamental and applied kinesiology, 47(1), 33-43.

Sgrò, F., Quinto, A., Pignato, S., & Lipoma, M. (2016). Comparison of product and process oriented model accuracy for assessing countermovement vertical jump motor proficiency in pre-adolescents. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16(3), 921-927.

Sgrò, F., Quinto, A., Messana, L., Pignato, S., & Lipoma, M. (2017). Assessment of gross motor developmental level in Italian primary school children. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(3), 1954-1959.

Tàmmaro, A. E., Cesana, L., & Decio, G. (2008). Attività fisica, salute e cognitività nell'anziano. Ricerche di Psicologia, 1(1-2), 75.

Tinetti, M. E. (1986). Performance‐oriented assessment of mobility problems in elderly patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 34(2), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1986.tb05480.x

Tiziana, D., Antonetta, M., Gaetano, A. (2017) Health and physical activity [Zdravlje i tjelesna aktivnost]Sport Science, 10 (1), pp. 100-105.

Verghese, J., Holtzer, R., Oh-Park, M., Derby, C. A., Lipton, R. B., & Wang, C. (2011). Inflammatory markers and gait speed decline in older adults. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences, 66(10), 1083-1089. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glr099

Visser M, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, et al. Muscle mass muscle strength and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60(3):324–333. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/60.3.324

Vitulli, P., Femminella, G. D., Ciccarelli, A. L., Rengo, F., Lombardi, A., Cellurale, M., Rengo, F. (2012). Attività fisica e invecchiamento. G. Geront, 60, 172-181.

Vuillemin, A., Boini, S., Bertrais, S., Tessier, S., Oppert, J.‐ M., Hercberg, S., et al. (2005). Leisure time physical activity and health‐related quality of life. Preventive Medicine, 41(2), 562‐569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.01.006


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Pignato, S., Quinto, A., Gagliardi, S., & Patania, V. (2019). A specific training protocol for the elderly. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(4proc), S638-S645. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc4.23

Most read articles by the same author(s)