The effect of slackline training on balance performance in healthy male children
Keywords:Tightrope, Exercise program, Transferability, Dynamic balance, Static balance, Children and exercise
Slackline has been proposed as a challenging and motivating tool for balance training. However, the transferability of balance performances among different balance tasks has been questioned. This study aimed to assess if slackline training affects dynamic and static balance performances on stable and unstable surfaces. Eighteen healthy males (8 to 14 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. For six weeks, both groups performed several supervised sports activities (2-hour sessions, 3 sessions per week). Additionally, the experimental group underwent a slackline-based balance training (1-hour sessions, 3 sessions per week). The dynamic and static balance were tested before and after the interventions using the Bass test (BASS) and the Stork stand test (SST), respectively. Landing (BASSlanding) and balance (BASSbalance) components of the dynamic balance were evaluated, while the static balance was assessed with eyes open (SSTopen) and closed (SSTclosed) on a stable surface, and with eyes open on an air cushion (SSTac). Two-way mixed-design ANOVAs revealed no interaction effect between time and group allocation in BASSlanding (p = .791), BASSbalance (p = .641), and right leg SSTopen (p = .177), SSTclosed (p = .076) and SSTac (p = .039), and left leg SSTopen (p = .100) and SSTclosed (p = .032). There was a significant interaction on left leg SSTac (p = .004), showing higher improvements over time in the experimental (mean improvement = 4.5 seconds, p < .001) compared to the control group (mean improvement = 0.9 seconds, p = .236). In conclusion, slackline balance training yielded no or negligible improvements on dynamic balance performances, whereas the improvements seemed higher on static balance, especially when measured on an unstable surface.
DiStefano, L. J., Clark, M. A., & Padua, D. A. (2009). Evidence supporting balance training in healthy individuals: a systemic review. J Strength Cond Res, 23(9), 2718-2731. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181c1f7c5
Donath, L., Roth, R., Rueegge, A., Groppa, M., Zahner, L., & Faude, O. (2013). Effects of slackline training on balance, jump performance & muscle activity in young children. Int J Sports Med, 34(12), 1093-1098. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1337949
Donath, L., Roth, R., Zahner, L., & Faude, O. (2016). Slackline training and neuromuscular performance in seniors: A randomized controlled trial. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 26(3), 275-283. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12423
Donath, L., Roth, R., Zahner, L., & Faude, O. (2017). Slackline Training (Balancing Over Narrow Nylon Ribbons) and Balance Performance: A Meta-Analytical Review. Sports Med, 47(6), 1075-1086. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0631-9
Giboin, L. S., Gruber, M., & Kramer, A. (2015). Task-specificity of balance training. Hum Mov Sci, 44, 22-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2015.08.012
Hrysomallis, C. (2007). Relationship between balance ability, training and sports injury risk. Sports Med, 37(6), 547-556. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737060-00007
Johnson, B. L., & Nelson, J. K. (1986). Practical measurements for evaluation in physical education (4th ed.). Edina, MN.: Burgess Pub.
Lehman, G. J. (2007). An unstable support surface is not a sufficient condition for increases in muscle activity during rehabilitation exercise. J Can Chiropr Assoc, 51(3), 139-143.
Lesinski, M., Hortobagyi, T., Muehlbauer, T., Gollhofer, A., & Granacher, U. (2015). Effects of Balance Training on Balance Performance in Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Med, 45(12), 1721-1738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0375-y
Makhlouf, I., Chaouachi, A., Chaouachi, M., Ben Othman, A., Granacher, U., & Behm, D. G. (2018). Combination of Agility and Plyometric Training Provides Similar Training Benefits as Combined Balance and Plyometric Training in Young Soccer Players. Front Physiol, 9, 1611. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01611
McGuine, T. A., Greene, J. J., Best, T., & Leverson, G. (2000). Balance as a predictor of ankle injuries in high school basketball players. Clin J Sport Med, 10(4), 239-244. https://doi.org/10.1097/00042752-200010000-00003
Ruhe, A., Fejer, R., & Walker, B. (2010). The test-retest reliability of centre of pressure measures in bipedal static task conditions--a systematic review of the literature. Gait Posture, 32(4), 436-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.09.012
Soderman, K., Werner, S., Pietila, T., Engstrom, B., & Alfredson, H. (2000). Balance board training: prevention of traumatic injuries of the lower extremities in female soccer players? A prospective randomized intervention study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 8(6), 356-363. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001670000147
Taube, W., Gruber, M., & Gollhofer, A. (2008). Spinal and supraspinal adaptations associated with balance training and their functional relevance. Acta Physiol (Oxf), 193(2), 101-116. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.2008.01850.x
Wahl, M. J., & Behm, D. G. (2008). Not all instability training devices enhance muscle activation in highly resistance-trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res, 22(4), 1360-1370. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0b013e318175ca3c
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.