Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Peculiarities of respiratory functions in qualified swimmers exposed to multidirectional physical loads

Alexander Bolotin, Vladislav Bakayev, Oleg Ponimasov, Valerya Vasilyeva



The peculiarities of the swimmers’ respiratory system response to a special physical load were studied. The swimmers of high sports qualification aged 16–18 years old, who specialize in swimming at distances of various lengths, underwent the examination. At the first stage, we used exercises aimed at enhancing the anaerobic work power in swimming. At the second stage, the parameters of the swimmers’ respiratory system response to the load in aerobic and anaerobic zone were studied. At the third stage of the study, the changes of the swimmers’ respiratory functions under physical loads at the level of MOC (maximum oxygen consumption) were researched. The investigation of respiratory system functions of stayer swimmers was conducted with the use of a Spirolab-3 spirometer (spirograph). We found that the recovery of qualified swimmers can be activated when aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms of energy metabolism are combined. The results of the study confirm that the swimmers’ respiratory functions influence the processes of recovery of their working capacity after being exposed to multidirectional physical loads. The sprinters’ anaerobic mechanisms of muscle function are better developed. The stayers’ aerobic mechanisms of energy metabolism function better. In order to activate the recovery of qualified swimmers, it is advisable to combine aerobic and anaerobic mechanisms of energy metabolism.


Respiratory functions; Sprinter swimmers; Stayer swimmers; Direction of load


Amaro, N., Morouço, P., Marques, M., Fernandes, R., & Marinho, D. (2017). Biomechanical and bioenergetical evaluation of swimmers using fully-tethered swimming: A qualitative review. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 12(4), 1346-1360.

Aspenes, S.T., & Karlsen, T. (2012). Exercise-Training Intervention Studies in Competitive Swimming. Sports Med., 42(6), pp.527-543.

Bakayev, V., & Bolotin, A. (2020). Differentiated Training Model for Marathon Runners on Building Tempo and Speed Endurance Based On the Types of Energy Metabolism. Sport Mont, 18(3), 31-34.

Bolotin, A., & Bakayev, V. (2020). Comparative Analysis of Peripheral Blood Circulation Parameters in Long-Distance Swimmers at Middle Altitude and Under the Conditions of a Hypoxic Gas Environment. Sport Mont, 18(2), 113-115.

Bolotin, A.E., Ponimasov, O.E. (2020). Female swimmers training level estimation on the basis of heart rate variability indices analysis. Proceedings of the First International Volga Region Conference on Economics, Humanities and Sports, 629-631.

Bolotin A., Bakayev V. (2017). The differences in response of the respiratory system of long and middle-distance runners and their influence on recovery rate. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(4), pp.2443-2446.

Burton, D., Johns, D.P., Swanney, M. (2005). Spirometer users' and buyers guide. Australian Department of Health and Ageing, 30 p.

Costa, M.J., Bragada, J.A., Mejias, J.E., Louro, H., Marinho, D.A., Silva, A.J., and Barbosa, T.M. (2012). Tracking the performance, energetics and biomechanics of international versus national level swimmers during a competitive season. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112, 811-820.

Dalamitros, A.A., Manou, V., & Pelarigo, J.G. (2014). Laboratory-based tests for swimmers: methodology, reliability, considerations and relationship with front-crawl performance. J. Hum. Sport Exerc., 9(1), pp.172- 187.

Espinosa-Mendez, C. M., Renero-Carrillo, F. J., Martin-Rodriguez, S. S. L., & Flores-Chico, B. (2020). The Effect of Respiratory Muscle Training on the Maximum Oxygen Consumption and the Anaerobic Threshold. Sport Mont, 18(3), 57-60.

Ferreira, M.I., Barbosa, T.M., Costa, M.J., Neiva, H.P., Vilaça, J., & Marinho, D.A. (2016). Effects of swim training on energetic and performance in women masters' swimmers. J. Hum. Sport Exerc., 11(1), 99-106.

Leko, G., Siljeg, K., & Greguranic, T. (2019). Effects of the basic period in swimming training with the age group. Sport Mont, 17(2), 99-102.

Miller, M.R. Hankinson, J. Brusasco, V (2005). Standardization of spirometry. European Respiratory Journal, (2), 319-338.

Morales, E., & Arellano, R. (2019). Regression analysis model applied to age-group swimmers: 50m race component times analysis. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(2), 315-324.

Sousa, A., Figueiredo, P., Zamparo, P., Vilas-Boas, J.P., & Fernandes, R.J. (2013). Anaerobic alactic energy assessment in middle distance swimming. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(8), 2153-2158.


Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.