The relative importance of strength and power qualities to vertical jump height of elite beach volleyball players during the counter-movement and squat jump
Despite the inclusion of beach volleyball as an Olympic discipline with a fully professional world tour, little research has been published that has examined the physical qualities of internationally competitive athletes. Thirty international-standard beach volleyball athletes (14 male, 16 female) performed countermovement jumps (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ) on a force platform. Ground reaction force (GRF) was collected from three SJ separated by 30 seconds passive rest, followed by three CMJ separated by 30 seconds passive rest. Significant differences (P0.01) between male and female groups were found for all measured GRF characteristics of the SJ and CMJ, with the exception of peak rate of force development, relative peak force, power and relative average power for the CMJ test. For centre of mass displacement (jump height) the male mean was 8.33cm greater than the female mean. The strongest positive correlations with female jump height were SJ: Relative Peak Power (r=0.90); CMJ: Relative Average Power (r=0.67) The strongest positive correlations with male jump height were SJ: Relative Peak Power (r=0.94); Male CMJ: Relative Peak Power (r=0.83). No significant difference (P0.05) was shown between male and female stretch shortening cycle (SSC) performance as examined by a prestretch augmentation and eccentric utilisation ratios for jump height and peak power. The findings of this study suggest that relative peak and average power outputs are factors highly associated with vertical jump height in elite male and female beach volleyball players
Aragon-Vargas L.F., Gross M.M. Kinesiological factors in vertical jump performance: differences among individuals. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 1997; 13:24-44. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.13.1.24
Aragon-Vargas L.F. Evaluation of four vertical jump tests; methodology, reliability, validity, and accuracy. Medicine, Physical Education and Exercise Science. 2000; 4:215-228. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327841MPEE0404_2
Baca A. A comparison of methods for analyzing drop jump performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1999; 31(3):437-442. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199903000-00013
Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates; 1988.
Dugan E.L., Doyle T.L.A., Humphries B., Hasson C.J., Newton R.U. Determining the Optimal Load for Jump Squats: a review of methods and calculations. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2004; 18:668-674. https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4287(2004)18<668:DTOLFJ>2.0.CO;2
Garhammer J., Gregor R. Propulsion forces as a function of intensity for weightlifting and vertical jumping. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research. 1992; 6(3):129-134.
FIVB. 2008 Beach Volleyball World Tour. In; 2008. p... fivb.
Gehri D.J., Ricard M.D., Kleiner D.M., Kirkendall D.T. A Comparison of Plyometric Training Techniques for Improving Vertical Jump Ability and Energy Production. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 1998; 12(2):85-89.
Giatsis G. Jumping quality and quantitative analysis of beach volleyball game. In: Tokmakidis S, editor. 9th International Congress on Physical Education and Sport; 2001; 2001. p. 95.
Giatsis G., Kollias I., Panoutsakpoulos V., Papaikovou G. Biomechanical differences in elite beach-volleyball players in vertical squat jump on rigid and sand surfaces. Sports Biomechanics. 2004; 3(1):145-158. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140408522835
Homberg S., Papageorgiou A. Handbook For Beach Volleyball. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer Verlag; 1994.
Komi P.V., Bosco C. Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1978; 10:261-265.
Komi P.V., Rusko H., Vos J., Vihko V. Anaerobic performance capacity in athletes. Acta Physiologica Scandanavica. 1977; 100:107-114. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1977.tb05926.x
Korhonen M.T., Mero A., Suominen H. Age-related differences in 100-m sprint performance in male and female master runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2003; 35:1419-1428. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000079080.15333.CA
Maffiuletti N.A., Dugnani S., Folz M., Di Pierno E., Mauro F. Effect of combined electrostimulation and plyometric training on vertical jump height. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2002; 34(10):1638-1644. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200210000-00016
Mayhew L., Salm P.C. Gender differences in anaerobic power tests. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2001; 60(2):133-138. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00846033
Mcguigan M.R., Doyle T.L., Newton M., Edwards D.E., Nimphius S., Newton R.U. Eccentric utilization ratio: Effect of sport and phase of training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2006; 20(4):992-995. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200611000-00042
Muramatsu S., Fukudome A., Miyama M., Arimoto M., A. K. Energy expenditure in maximal jumps on sand. Journal of Physiology and Anthropology. 2006; 25(1):59-61. https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.25.59
Newton R.U., Kraemer W.J., Hakkinen K. Effects of ballistic training on preseason preparation of elite volleyball players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1999; 31:323-330. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199902000-00017
Newton R.U., Rogers R.A., Volek J.S., Hakkinen K., Kraemer W.J. Four weeks of optimal load ballistic resistance training at the end of season attenuates declining jump performance of women volleyball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2006; 20:955-961.
Perez-Gomez J., Rodriguez G.V., Ara I., Olmedillas H., Chavarren J., Gonzalez-Henriquez J.J., et al. Role of muscle mass on sprint performance: gender difference. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2008; 102:685-694. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0648-8
Sheppard J.M., Cormack S., Taylor K.L., Mcguigan M.R., Newton R.U. Assessing the force-velocity characteristics of well trained athletes: the incremental load power profile. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008a; 22(4):1320-1326. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d671b
Sheppard J.M., Doyle T.L. Increasing compliance to instructions in the squat jump. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008b; 22(2):648-651. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816602d4
Sheppard J.M., Gabbett T.J., Taylor K.L., Dorman J., Lebedew A.J, R. B. Development of a repeated-effort test for elite men's volleyball. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2007a; 2:292-304. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2.3.292
Sheppard J.M., Chapman D., Gough C., Mcguigan M.R., Newton R.U. Twelve month training induced changes in elite international volleyball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. In press. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b86d98
Sheppard J.M., Mcguigan M.R., Newton R.U. The effects of depth-jumping on vertical jump performance of elite volleyball players: an examination of the transfer of increased stretch-load tolerance to spike jump performance. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning. 2008c; 16(4):3-10.
Sheppard J.M., Chapman D., Gough C., Mcguigan M., Newton R.U. The association between changes in vertical jump and changes in strength and power qualities in elite volleyball players over 1 year. National Strength and Conditioning Association Annual Conference Abstracts-Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008d; 22(6):1-115.
Sheppard J.M., Hobson S., Chapman D., Taylor K.L., Mcguigan M., Newton R.U. The effect of training with accentuated eccentric load counter-movement jumps on strength and power characteristics of high-performance volleyball players. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching. 2008e; 3(3):355-363. https://doi.org/10.1260/174795408786238498
Sheppard J.M., Newton R.U., Mcguigan M. The effects of accentuated eccentric load on kinetic and kinematic factors in vertical jump performance of elite male athletes. In: 2nd Annual Sports Innovation Summit; 2007b; Vancouver, Canada.
Sheppard J.M., Cronin J., Gabbett T.J., Mcguigan M.R., Extebarria N., Newton R.U. Relative importance of strength and power qualities to jump performance in elite male volleyball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2007c; 22(3):758-765. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816a8440
Smith D.J., Roberts D., Watson B. Physical, physiological and performance differences between Canadian national team and universiade volleyball players. Journal of Sports Sciences. 1992; 10:131-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419208729915
Walshe A.D., Wilson G.J., Murphy A.J. The Validity and reliability of a test of lower body musculotendinous stiffness. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 1996; 73:332-339. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02425495
Weyand P.G., Sternlight D.B., Bellizzi M.J., Wright S. Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2000; 89:1991-1999.
Young W. Laboratory strength assessment of athletes. New Studies in Athletics 1995a; 10(1):89-96.
Young W. Specificity of strength development for improving the takeoff ability in jumping events. Modern Athlete and Coach. 1995b; 33:3-8.