Digital and non-verbal communication in preschool: A systematic review


  • Manuela Valentini University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Italy
  • Mariachiara Mancini University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Italy
  • Gaetano Raiola University of Salerno, Italy
  • Ario Federici University of carlo Bo of Urbino, Italy



Non-verbal communication, Digital communication, Preschool, Children, Teachers


The aim of this research is to reflect on the importance, since preschool, of both verbal and non-verbal language, which is the unintentional communication or body language. This is done to assure a better self-awareness, to establish positive and effective relationships, to prevent conflicts and to empathically understand oneself and other people’s feelings. Furthermore, students are digital natives, so they require digitally equipped environments, with which they are familiar from an early age. On the other hand, teachers are digital immigrants, because they have only come in contact with digital devices as adults; as a consequence, they pay the price for the generation gap which distinguishes them from digital natives, whose mindset is more involved in the dynamics of change and whose lives are symbiotically connected to technology. Therefore, teachers need an adequate training for media management in classrooms. The review process focused on 36 international articles (20 articles and 16 investigations) and 4811participants; the inclusion.



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How to Cite

Valentini, M., Mancini, M., Raiola, G., & Federici, A. (2019). Digital and non-verbal communication in preschool: A systematic review. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(4proc), S997-S1016.

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