Effortless swimming and movement development in childhood


  • Ivan Di Carluccio University of Salerno, Italy
  • Simone Zulli University of Salerno, Italy
  • Anna Maria Mariani University Niccolò Cusano of Rome, Italy
  • Ilaria Viscione University of Salerno, Italy




Swimming, Multilateral approach, Heuristic learning, Ecological approach


The water skills are most important for physical and motor development. This work aim to define the whole aspects of the growth for children between 4 to 13 years old. Water skills development is different from earthly skills one, it happens in the water, a new environment with 700 time the viscosity of the air and with new skills not referable to gross motor skills. First step of swimming learning is water's fear overcoming and the learning of the basic water skills, one of the most important is the force breathing to win water's viscosity. Method is theoretical to recognize the scientific literature about the swimming learning. Results show the new procedure about teaching on heuristic learning, according to ecological approach and opposite to cognitive one. Ecological approach is very important for the first phases of the growth , focusing the educational action on fun as a mean to learn water skills and feel confident in the water. With the physical growth, prescriptive learning is progressively integrated with the ludic playing. In conclusion is significant the early introduction, the natural contact to the water to stimulate water attitudes. In the second time to suggest the traditional methods to learn the skills and master the strength to properly swim.


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How to Cite

Di Carluccio, I., Zulli, S., Mariani, A. M., & Viscione, I. (2019). Effortless swimming and movement development in childhood. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(4proc), S830-S834. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc4.45

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