Characterization of motivation and type of physical-sport practice in adults through COMPASS profiles
Physical Activity and Sport Practice (PASP) have grown in popularity in last years given its positive effects at physiological, social, cognitive and emotional level. Several researches have studied the main motivations involved in PASP using the Self-Determination Theory, highlighting the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic reasons. This descriptive and cross sectional study aims to establish the main motivations involved in physical activity and to identify its association with the sport profiles proposed by COMPASS project (2000). The research was conducted with a sample of 1002 adults (a 53% is female and a 47% is male) from Sevilla (= 45.35 years old; SD = 17.96), using the C-PAFYD questionnaire with a reliability of α = .84. The results show that profile 1 (competitive and intensive) comprises intrinsic and extrinsic motivations such as hedonism, desire of competition and to achieve a sport career, while profile 2 is oriented towards least self-determined motivations as health improving. In addition, these participants do physical activity alone or with co-workers. The profiles 3 and 4 (regular and non-organized physical activity) are related to motivations of social and ludic type. In fact, this sport practice is mainly done with friends and peers in public places. Finally, profiles 5 and 6, which are associated with an irregular and occasional PASP, manifested extrinsic motivations such as disease prevention.
Arribas, S., Izaskun, L., Gil, L. & González, O. (2013). Physical activity habits and sport practice questionnaire (C-PAFYD). Sport TK, 2(1), 9-22.
Bouchard, C., Blair, S., & Haskell, W. (2007). Physical Activity and Health. Campaign, II: Human Kinetics.
Brechot, M., Nüesch, S., & Franck, E. P. (2015). Does Sports Activity Improve Health? Representative Evidence Using Density of Sports Facilities as an Instrument. Forthcoming, Aplied Economics, 2017, 1-29. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2510771
Castro-Sánchez, M., Zurita-Ortega, F., Chacón-Cuberos, R., Martínez-Martínez, A., Espejo-Garcés, T., & Álvaro-González, J. I. (2015). Harmful substances and motivational climate in relation to physical activity. Health and Addictions Journal, 15(2), 115-126.
Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 980-1008. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035661
Chacón, F. (2011). Habits of practice of physical-sport activity of the adult population of Seville. Doctoral thesis: University of Sevilla.
Chacón-Cuberos, R., Chacón-Borrego, F., Zurita-Ortega, F., & Cachón-Zagalaz, J. (2016). Sport profiles by gender and age in adults from Seville. A regression model. Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte, 11(33), 207-215. https://doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v11i33.765
Chacón, R., Zurita, F., Castro, M., Espejo, T., Martínez, A. y Pérez, A. J. (2017). Motivational climate in sport and its relationship with digital sedentary leisure habits in university students. Saude e Sociedade, 26(1), 29-39. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0104-12902017166561
Claver, F., Jiménez, R., Del Villar, F., García-Más, A., & Perla, M. (2015). Motivation, knowledge and decision making: A predictive Study of Volleyball Success. Journal of Sport Psychology, 24(2), 273-279.
Ntoumanis, N., Taylor, I. M., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2012). A longitudinal examination of coach and peer motivational climates in youth sport: Implications for moral attitudes, well-being, and behavioral investment. Developmental Psychology, 48(1), 213-223. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024934
COMPASS (1999). Sports Participation in Europe. A joint CONI, UK Sport, Sport England initiative (Contributor- Statistical analysis).
COMPASS (2000). Sports participation in Europe, Strasbourg, Conuncil of Europe.
Côté, J., Salmela, J. H., & Russell, S. J. (2010). The knowledge of high-performance gymnastic coaches: Competition and training considerations. Human Kinetics Journals, 9(1), 76-95. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.9.1.76
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behaviour. Psychological Enquiry, 11, 227-268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
Eime, R., Casey, M., Harvey, J., Sawyer, N., Symons, C., & Payne, W. (2015). Socioecological factors potentially associated with participation in physical activity and sport: A longitudinal study of adolescent girls. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18, 684-690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.09.012
Estévez-López, F., Tercedor, P., & Delgado-Fernández, M. (2012). Physical activity recommendations for healthy adults. Revision and current situation. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 4(3), 233-244.
Fortier, M. S., Duda, J. L., Guerin, E., & Teixeira, P. J. (2012). Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-20
Gardner, B. & Lally, P. (2013). Does intrinsic motivation strengthen physical activity habit? Modeling relationships between self-determination, past behaviour, and habit strength. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 36(5), 488-497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-012-9442-0
Hallal, P., Andersen, L., Bull, F., Guthold, R., Haskell, W., & Ekelund, U. (2012). Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The Lancet, 380, 247-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60646-1
Joseph, R., Royse, K., Benitez, T., & Pekmezi, D. Physical activity and quality of life among university students: exploring self-efficacy, self-esteem, and affect as potential mediators. Quality of life research, 23(2), 659-667. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-013-0492-8
Keegan, R., Spray, C., Harwood, C., & Lavallee, D. (2010). The motivational atmosphere in youth sport: coach, parent, and peer influences on motivation in specializing sport participants. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 87-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200903421267
Kondric, M., Sindik, J., Furjan-Mandic, G., & Schiefler, B. (2013). Participation motivation and student's physical activity among sport students in three countries. Journal of Sport Science & Medicine, 12(1), 10-18.
Khan, K., Thompson, A., Blair, S., Sallis, J., Powell, K., Bull, F. & Bauman, A. (2012). Sport and exercise as contributors to the health of nations. The Lancet, 380, 59-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60865-4
Kyoum, Y. & Trall, G. (2010). Constraints and Motivators: a new model to explain sport consumer behaviour. Journal of Sport Management, 24, 190-210. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.24.2.190
Marcos, J., Orquín, F. J., Belando, N., & Moreno-Murcia, J. A. (2014). Self-determination motivation in elderly practitioners of physical exercise. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 14(3), 149-156.
Moreno, J. A., Cervelló, E., & Martínez, A. (2007). Validation of the perceived motives for physical activity measure in spanish practitioners: differences for participation reasons. Annals of Psychology, 23(1), 167-176.
Moreno-Murcia, J. A., Borges, F., Marcos, P. J., Sierra, A. C., & Huéscar, E. (2012). Motivation, frequency and activity type in physical exercise practioners. International Journal of Medicine and Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, 12(48), 649-662.
Murayama, K. & Elliot, A. (2012). The competition-performance relation: A meta-analytic review and test of the opposing processes model of competition and performance. Psychological Bulletin, 138(6), 1035-1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028324
Ortega, F. B., Konstabel, K., Pasquali, E., Ruiz, J., Hurtig-Wennlof, A., Maestu, J., …, & Veidebaum, T. (2013). Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time during childhood, adolescence and Young adulthood: a cohort study. PlosOne, 8(4), e60871. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060871
Owen, K. B., Astell-Burt, T. & Lonsdale, C. (2013). The relationship between self-determined motivation and physical activity in adolescent boys. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(3), 420-422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.05.007
Pelletier, L. G., Rocchi, M. A., Vallerand, R. J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). Validation of the revised sport motivation scale (SMS-II). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(3), 329-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.12.002
Pulido, J. J., Sánchez-Olivia, D., González-Ponce, I., Amado, D., Montero, C., & García-Calvo, T. (2015). Adaptation and validation of a questionnaire to asess motivation in the sport context. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 15(3), 17-26.
Sicilia, A., González-Cutre, D., Artés, E. M., Orta, A., Casimiro, A. J., & Ferriz, R. (2014). Reasons why people do exercise: A study using Self-Determination Theory. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 46(2), 83-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0120-0534(14)70011-1
Teixeira, P. J., Carraça, E. V., Markland, D., Silva, M. N., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 78(9), 1-30. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-78
Verburgh, L., Königs, M., Scherder, E. J., & Oosterlaan, J. (2013). Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: a meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-091441
Wadden, T. A., Webb, V. L., Moran, C. H. & Bailer, B. A. (2012). Lifestyle modification for obesity new developments in diet, physical activity and behaviour therapy. Circulation, 125(9), 1157-1170. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.039453
Zurita, F., Fernández, R., Cachón, J., Ambris, J., Zaleta, L., & Hernández, D. (2014). Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Youth Football Players regarding Teaching Styles they receive of Coaches from Ciudad del Carmen (México). Journal of Sport and Health Research, 6(1), 63-74.
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.